Interoperability: How to Measure Data Interoperability and Communication Across Health Systems

Operability is an ability of the process or plant that has the capacity and flexibility to achieve a range of operating conditions safely, reliably, profitably and with good dynamic performance and product quality. The Operability ensures to keep the equipment, system or unit and plant in a safe and reliable functioning condition that is pre-defined operational requirements. In a computing systems environment with multiple systems this includes the ability of products, systems and business processes to work together to accomplish a common task such as finding and returning availability of inventory for flight.

Operable software systems also allow determination of the internal state of the system components, and tend to exhibit faults only when error conditions relate to previously-unseen states or errors in external systems. It brought enforcement actions, for example, against pharmacy giants Rite Aid and Kroger for—recalling Mr Dengler’s consulate conundrum—creating inaccessible covid-19 vaccine portals. The private lawsuits, meanwhile, tend to target smaller companies reporting annual revenue under $25m; and most are retailers, not purveyors of education or health-care services. To achieve this outcome, each interconnected component of a healthcare ecosystem (governance and workforce, interoperability, predictive analytics, and person-enabled health) must align with and enable every other component. Most modern browsers allow users to navigate focusable elements via the keyboard and activate them using the Enter/Return key. Make sure that you do not override this behavior or use an illogical focus order.


In the context of a software systems, Operability is a measure of how well a software system works when operating. The practices and approaches known as ‘DevOps’ – strong collaboration between development and operations teams – have helped organisations to re-align their business and technology goals towards sustainable delivery of valuable, working software. One of the key goals of DevOps is to ensure that software runs well in Production, especially in the context of regular changes (deployments). For a gas turbine engine, operability addresses the installed aerodynamic operation of the engine[1] to ensure that it operates with care-free throttle handling without compressor stall or surge or combustor flame-out. There must be no unacceptable loss of power or handling deterioration after ingesting birds, rain and hail or ingesting or accumulating ice.


Design and development responsibilities include the components through which the thrust/power-producing flow passes, ie the intake, compressor, combustor, fuel system, turbine and exhaust. They also include the software in the computers which control the way the engine changes its speed in response to the actions of the pilot in selecting a start, selecting different idle settings and higher power ratings such as take-off, climb and cruise. The engine has to start to idle and accelerate and decelerate within agreed, or mandated, times while remaining within operating limits (shaft speeds, turbine temperature, combustor casing pressure) over the required aircraft operating envelope. By 1995 a group of organisations started what eventually became the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.

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Flexible imaging technology has attracted increasing interest in medical diagnosis, security inspection and non-destructive testing due to its operability for curved objects. Herein, we report an in situ fabrication strategy for a flexible BA2PbBr4 NC@PMMA film with an extraordinary stability and a high mechanical flexibility. This flexible film remains 90% and 97% of initial radioluminescence (RL) intensity value after being immersed in water for 5 days and 600 cycles of bending, respectively. Furthermore, the scintillation film exhibits a favorable linear response correlation with the X-ray dose rate and a fast decay time of 2.07 ns. A series of well-resolved X-ray images of flat objects with a high spatial resolution of 5.5 lp/mm are achieved, which can satisfy the demand of many application scenarios. The non-distortion X-ray image is successfully recorded for nonplanar objects using this flexible scintillation film.


With the Digital Health Virtual Assessment, you’ll gain personalized recommendations on next steps to take toward your health system’s digital health transformation. The next post in our series on measuring digital health transformation explores predictive analytics. WCAG’s emphasis on perceivability ensures that users can passively take in and access the information on your website. Operability, on the other hand, also guarantees that users can interact with and make full use of the site.

Business & economics

Because first responders need to be able to communicate during wide-scale emergencies, interoperability is an important issue for law enforcement, fire fighting, emergency medical services, and other public health and safety departments. Agencies tried to bridge this isolation with inefficient, stop-gap methods while large agencies began implementing limited interoperable systems. These approaches were inadequate and, in the US, the lack of interoperability in the public safety realm become evident during the 9/11 attacks[13] on the Pentagon and World Trade Center structures. Further evidence of a lack of interoperability surfaced when agencies tackled the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  • In 2004, the European Commission found that Microsoft had abused its market power by deliberately restricting interoperability between Windows work group servers and non-Microsoft work group servers.
  • A focus on software operability is therefore a recognition of the need to ‘make the software as a system work well’ in the Production environment.
  • Using log traces from multiple machines is key to observing the behavior of runtime systems.
  • Furthermore, the scintillation film exhibits a favorable linear response correlation with the X-ray dose rate and a fast decay time of 2.07 ns.
  • Software with a high level of operability is easy to deploy, test, and interrogate in the Production environment.
  • When applied in combination with the other three WCAG principles, operability ensures that people with disabilities can enjoy full use of your website.

Provide helper endpoints for services such as databases or queues that have no native HTTP capability. This lets you wire up a standard environment dashboard really easily, showing the health of all components at a glance. The Run Book dialog sheet technique works best when the dev/delivery team takes the lead on defining the initial set of operational features, because the team typically has to reach out to more operations-focused teams to fill in the details. The National Institute of Standards and Technology serves as an agency for measurement standards.

Public safety

If users are pressing the Tab key to redirect focus to different elements, the order in which elements receive focus should make logical sense (such as a top-to-bottom ordering on the page). For example, Guideline 2.1 of WCAG requires websites to be fully functional and navigable with only the keyboard. This is particularly important for users with motor disabilities, who may not have the fine motor skills required to operate a mouse. You can use lightweight user personas to characterize the needs (motivations, goals, frustrations) of testers, release engineers, ops people, and others who need to interact with the software as part of their job.


Combined with the other three components of the healthcare ecosystem, it gauges organizational effectiveness in providing optimal outcomes for the patients it serves. Assessed via standardized performance metrics, interoperability is the key to unity among disparate specialties and functions within and across healthcare organizations. In your efforts to meet the needs of the primary users of your systems, you sometimes forget to meet the needs of secondary or internal users such as testers, release engineers, and ops people, which is a problem. If your software is difficult to test, difficult to deploy, and difficult to operate, you risk losing money or reputation fighting the software to resolve the problem when there is a failure of some kind. Again, if you collaborate among different teams on the trace details, you gain rich operational insights into the running software system. Correlation IDs should help dev teams build better software every week, rather than merely being a special feature of the production environment.

Значение operability в английском

Another example of a neutral party is the RFC documents from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Specifically related to web-based search, the challenge of interoperability stems from the fact designers of web resources typically have little or no need to concern themselves with exchanging information with other web resources. Federated Search technology, which does not place format requirements on operability the data owner, has emerged as one solution to search interoperability challenges. In addition, standards, such as Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, Resource Description Framework, and SPARQL, have emerged that also help address the issue of search interoperability related to web resources. Such standards also address broader topics of interoperability, such as allowing data mining.

New technology is being introduced in hospitals and labs at an ever-increasing rate. The need for plug-and-play interoperability – the ability to take a medical device out of its box and easily make it work with one’s other devices – has attracted great attention from both healthcare providers and industry. In this context, a more apt definition is captured in the term business process interoperability. If two or more systems use common data formats and communication protocols then they are capable of communicating with each other and they exhibit syntactic interoperability. Low-level data formats also contribute to syntactic interoperability, ensuring that alphabetical characters are stored in the same ASCII or a Unicode format in all the communicating systems.

Create your operability action plan

Combined with a structured logging library, you have a rich source of operational intelligence for our software, validated and curated by teams working with the systems. With the goal of improving mutual understanding of software systems through collaboration—a true DevOps approach—here are five practical ways your team can collaborate to enhance the operability of your software systems. Interoperability tends to be regarded as an issue for experts and its implications for daily living are sometimes underrated. The European Union Microsoft competition case shows how interoperability concerns important questions of power relationships. In 2004, the European Commission found that Microsoft had abused its market power by deliberately restricting interoperability between Windows work group servers and non-Microsoft work group servers. By doing so, Microsoft was able to protect its dominant market position for work group server operating systems, the heart of corporate IT networks.

How to explain modern software development in plain English

By putting efforts in both automation and process improvements, the business can focus on speed, flexibility and quality at scale. This requires a culture of shared responsibilities and ownership (sometimes referred to as a “we build it, we run it” mentality). To be able to come to a good end-to-end process, it is key to have the right foundations. On the one hand, this will require a well governed and agreed upon process that allows room for continuous improvement and continuous learning. On the other hand, aspects like culture and attracting and developing the right talent are indispensable, a prerequisite for success.

Plan intermediate releases in groups of usage scenarios with evolving levels of details. We must plan an incremental realize in which we have an evolving level of use case, architecture, and details. “Where it could take months to build out a data center 20 years ago, today a large solution can be deployed with a few clicks, leading to great increases in productivity.”

Software engineering and computational physics

DevOps focuses on developing and improving products faster than competing organizations. The operations and development teams work together in a DevOps structure, thereby eliminating most breakdowns in communications. Languages support inline exception handling and Python is no different. Exception handling in most applications is important, but within forensic and digital investigation applications it is vital. When developing these applications it is important that you can demonstrate that you have handled all the possible situations.

modern software development process

Devops automations like CI/CD, Infrastructure as Code , and continuous testing enable a more reliable path to production. Other practices, including shift-left security practices, observable microservices, feature flagging, canary releases, and AIOps, provide a more flexible and reliable delivery model. As an initial concept taken from the testing world, the shift left approach became a must do in any agile software development project. The shift left approach has been embraced further and became a major driver of integrating operations into the life cycle.

Iterative Development Model

Becoming a software developer requires learning the key skills, programming languages, and concepts needed to build software products. These days, many people are successfully pivoting or switching their careers from education, the service industry, and more to coding and development. They may complete bootcamps or earn professional certificates online such as IBM’s Full Stack Cloud Developer. The final stage of the software development life cycle is maintenance and operations.

modern software development process

Shape Up starts with an appetite and ends with a solution design that can be delivered within this constraint. Generally includes joint application design , where users are intensely involved in system design, via consensus building in either structured workshops, or electronically facilitated interaction. Project control involves prioritizing development and defining delivery deadlines or “timeboxes”. If the project starts to slip, emphasis is on reducing requirements to fit the timebox, not in increasing the deadline.

What is a Workflow? How to Create a Winning Workflow for Your Process

The project team creates a small prototype of the final software for the users. This version is used to get feedback for the users and also check the usability and feasibility of the design. Starting off with a good ideation and prototyping phase provides more certainty than the development of the right functionality. The risk of human error can be reduced greatly by automating the work to be done, including release and deployment of software products to the infrastructure environment. By integrating significant parts of the development process and by creating small cross-functional teams, most organizations today are better capable of delivering business value much faster. Also, as a result of the smaller deliveries, the risk of failure is reduced as the number of different components affected is generally much smaller.

  • Triggers are events that the CI listens for to start the build system.
  • All three phases consist of short iterations to keep the feedback cycles as short as possible to ensure the value delivered still matches the actual need of the client.
  • In this paper, I address some of the tougher requirements on current grand challenge research to ensure that it has enduring value.
  • You can call the Spiral model as a risk-driven model in which the process is radially curling instead of sequential.
  • This necessitated a change in the way organizations adopted DevOps tools.

Nevertheless, V-shaped is still a “plan-driven” process and probably won’t work for teams wanting greater flexibility. In an Incremental process, each “incremental” improvement of the product adds one new function or feature. In essence, it is similar to creating an overall plan, developing a minimum viable product with just the core functionality, and then using feedback for developing additional features. With an incremental process, developers use early feedback on core features to make improvements. In this chapter, we explain how to develop and use dashboard for monitoring of software development progress and discuss the quality of software architectures under development.

Consistently Maintain and Update Your Software

Customers today are accustomed to highly available, constant-release, high-value applications that are consumable anywhere, anytime and on any platform. This consumer buying behavior drives organizations to adapt their strategies, both internally and externally. The way most corporate technology is delivered is insufficient to be able to catch up with these advancements.

As an open source platform, node.js has one of the largest open source code libraries available. Just like with the development models and collaboration platforms, each team will make its own choices about development environment. However, a general similarity between these tools means the more you are familiar with, the easier it will be to adapt. Tools that provide real-time information on deployments and release status in real time are allowing teams to ship customer-pleasing features regularly.


Starting from gathering the initial requirements to learning about the actual product that is running in a live environment. This quality focus also means considering that security, audit, and compliance processes need to be an integral part of the delivery cycle. While many frameworks for agile software development exist, these frameworks do not cover the full extent of agile and DevOps combined. For many organizations, it is the successful combination of these approaches that will in the end lead to success.

modern software development process

This necessitated a change in the way organizations adopted DevOps tools. That is, test-case prioritization in initial testing targets at scheduling the execution order of test cases designed for the current version so as to detect faults in the current version as early as possible. Due to the characteristics of ITP (e.g., does not rely on old version information), its techniques are usually applicable to regression testing, whereas the techniques of the latter may not be applicable for the former. Once the final low-fidelity mockup is determined, the visual, interaction and User Interface designers further tweak the idea for a high-fidelity prototype that will display how the solution will appear and perform. Once these behaviors are studied, the next step is to create an interactive User Experience prototype for testing.

Formal Methods of Program Verification and Specification

With cloud computing, companies could rent servers instead of buying them – not to mention a whole host of other infrastructure and services. This was a game-changer – it made the raw IT firepower once reserved for the world’s largest businesses and governments available to pretty much everyone. And even for those massive companies, it brought new economies of scale – and much faster implementations – that would have once been unattainable.